About department

Field of Scientific Interest

The Department of Molten Systems is engaged in research related to all physical and chemical aspects of molten inorganic salts. These systems can be characterized by the existence of Coulombic interactions at high temperatures. The main subject of the research is the investigation of the physicochemical properties which include phase equilibria, density, electrical conductivity, viscosity, interfacial and surface tension. The ultimate goal is to find out the relationship between the physicochemical behavior of the molten systems and their composition and structure. The research focuses mainly on fluoride systems based on aluminum, magnesium, zirconium, scandium, tantalum, niobium, and systems based on lanthanides. The ambition of the department is to use a wide range of modern techniques, such as high temperature NMR and MAS NMR spectroscopy, high temperature neutron and synchrotron diffraction, etc. An essential part of the research of inorganic melts is their electrochemical characterization using several electrochemical techniques (various types of voltammetry, chronoamperometry, chronopotentiometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy). The applied research of the department is mainly connected with the optimization of conditions of the electrolytic production of primary aluminum and other electrolytically deposited metals, but the subject of applied research is not only limited to electrometallurgy. An important part of the research is the research of corrosion of construction materials in melts, the investigation of molten systems suitable for energy storage, and the synthesis of interesting compounds from inorganic melts, e.g. ternary fluorides or (oxo) – (fluoro) – aluminates based on perovskites for photonic and electronic applications. The department is involved in several national and international projects in academia as well as in applied research for foreign and domestic industrial partners.


  • Head of department: doc. Ing. Miroslav Boča, DrSc.

Selected Publications

BOČA, Miroslav**MLYNÁRIKOVÁ, JarmilaMACKOVÁ, Iveta – JANIČKOVIČ, Dušan – CZÍMEROVÁ, Adriana – SHI, Zhongning. Diffraction and luminescence analysis of extremely rapidly cooled molten system (LiF-CaF2)(eut)-xLnF(3) (Ln=Sm and Gd). In Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 2021, vol. 31, no. 4, p. 1151-1164. (2020: 2.917 – IF, Q1 – JCR) https://doi.org/10.1016/S1003-6326(21)65568-1

GUAN, Jinzhao – XIE, K. – LIU, Aimin – SHI, Zhongning** – CHEN, Gong – BOČA, Miroslav. Study on the mechanism of Al-Si alloy preparation via aluminothermic reduction-molten salt electrolysis in KF-AlF3 molten salt. In Materials Today Communications, 2021, vol. 29, no., p. 102959-1-102959-8. (2020: 3.383 – IF, Q2 – JCR) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mtcomm.2021.102959

KITYK, A.** – PROTSENKO, V. – DANILOV, F.I. – PAVLÍK, Viliam – HNATKO, Miroslav – ŠOLTÝS, Ján. Enhancement of the surface characteristics of Ti-based biomedical alloy by electropolishing in environmentally friendly deep eutectic solvent (Ethaline). In Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 2021, vol. 613, p. 126125-1-126125-14. (2020: 4.539 – IF, Q2 – JCR) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2020.126125

KITYK, A.** – HNATKO, Miroslav – PAVLÍK, ViliamBOČA, Miroslav. Electrochemical surface treatment of manganese stainless steel using several types of deep eutectic solvents. In Materials Research Bulletin, 2021, vol. 141, p. 111348-1-111348-11. (2020: 4.641 – IF, Q2 – JCR) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.materresbull.2021.111348

KITYK, A.** – HNATKO, Miroslav – PAVLÍK, ViliamBOČA, Miroslav. Electropolishing of WCu composite in a deep eutectic solvent. In Chemical Papers, 2021, vol. 75, no. 4, p. 1767-1771. (2020: 2.097 – IF, Q3 – JCR) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11696-020-01426-5

KITYK, A.** – PROTSENKO, V. – DANILOV, F.I. – PAVLÍK, ViliamBOČA, Miroslav. Effect of electropolishing of metals and alloys in a deep eutectic solvent on their corrosion characteristics. In Materials Science, 2021, vol. 56, no. 5, p. 629-633. (2020: 0.675 – IF, Q4 – JCR) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11003-021-00474-w

RAKHMATULLIN, Aydar** – MOLOKEEV, Maxim – KING, Graham – POLOVOV, Ilya B. – MAKSIMTSEV, Konstantin V. – CHESNEAU, Erwan – SUARD, Emmanuelle – BAKIROV, Rinat – ŠIMKO, František – BESSADA, Catherine – ALLIX, Mathieu. Polymorphs of Rb3ScF6: X-ray and neutron diffraction, solid-state NMR, and density functional theory calculations study. In Inorganic Chemistry, 2021, vol. 60, no. 8, p. 6016-6026. (2020: 5.165 – IF, Q1 – JCR) https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.1c00485

ŠIMKO, František** – RAKHMATULLIN, Aydar – KORENKO, Michal – BESSADA, Catherine. Structural correlations and chemistry of the Na3AlF6-SiO2 melt as an electrolyte for the solar grade silicon (SOG-Si) electrowinning. In Journal of Molecular Liquids, 2021, vol. 328, p. 115453-1-115453-11. (2020: 6.165 – IF, Q1 – JCR) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2021.115453


International and National Projects

RARE – Interaction of fluoride melts of rare earth elements with oxides of critical elements in the context of special applications
(Interakcia fluoridových taveninových systémov prvkov vzácnych zemín s oxidmi kritických prvkov v kontexte špeciálnych aplikácií)
Programme: APVV-19-0270
Project coordinator IIC: doc. Ing. M. Boča, DrSc.
Duration: 07/2020 – 06/2024
Phase changes of metal oxides in fluoride melts
(Fázové premeny oxidov kovov v roztavených fluoridových systémoch)
Programme: VEGA
Project coordinator IIC: doc. Ing. M. Boča, DrSc.
Duration: 01/2020 – 12/2023
Fluoride melts with potential applications in electrochemical aluminum production
(Fluoridové taveninové systémy s potenciálom využitia v elektrochemickej výrobe hliníka)
Programme: 2/0060/18
Project coordinator IIC: Ing. F. Šimko, PhD.
Duration: 01/2018 – 12/2021



Foreign Cooperating Institutions

  • Kola Science Centre RAS, Apatity, Russia
  • Ecole Polytechnique IUSTI-CNRS, Marseille, France
  • CEMHTI-CNRS, Orleans, France
  • Nuclear Research Institute, Řez, Czech Republic
  • College of Engineering, Valparaiso University, USA